Again with the corporate orientation—assuming that there are problems that need to be solved and that individuals can be assessed and then pumped full of the necessary knowledge—gap analysis. Voila-problem solved. Also very management-focused (witness her second and fourth goals for needs analysis—to gain management support and to determine the costs and benefits of training—and her purposes and objectives for conducting na—org goals and gap analysis). Org needs and task analysis are her main foci. Employee career development and individual analysis is farther down on her list and she doesn’t recognize employees’ abilities and only in passing mentions employees’ ability to provide recommendations. Though she is not as emphatic as L and P in saying that org. is fully responsible for determining needs, it comes out to the same thing because whether the org does the na according to its own goals oor the trainer does it according to the org’s criteria, it’s still the org’s criteria and not so much that of the employees. As with Lynton and Pareek, trainers focus is determining what can be remedied by training and then pulling together plan and resources to do it. The rest of the article deals with ways to gather data-surveys/questionnaires, interviews, performance appraisals, observation, tests, assessment centers, focus groups, document reviews, and advisory committees.

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