Motivation involves the processes that energize, direct and sustain behavior–the Holy Grail of learner-centered instruction. Theories on motivation:

  • Behavioral–incentives (positive stimuli like praise or treats), problem of extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation
  • Humanistic–Maslow’s hierarchy (must get certain needs met before others–physiological, safety, love and belonging, esteem, self-actualization (hard to reach)). not necessarily in that order.
  • Cognitive–major perspective holding sway now. Involves thinking, intrinsic motivation, beliefs and beliefs about causes of sucess or failure. Goal setting, planning and monitoring progress are important here. [self-efficacy and White’s competence motivation–mirrors Piaget’s belief that people naturally want to understand and deal effectively with the world aruond them]
  • Social–need for affiliation or relatedness major motivaotr in this perspective so caring and supportive interpersonal relationships make positive impact on academic achievement